ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume III-4
03 Jun 2016
 | 03 Jun 2016


George Sithole and Sisi Zlatanova

Keywords: Indoor, Mapping, Modelling, Navigation, Application

Abstract. Over the last decade, harnessing the commercial potential of smart mobile devices in indoor environments has spurred interest in indoor mapping and navigation. Users experience indoor environments differently. For this reason navigational models have to be designed to adapt to a user’s personality, and to reflect as many cognitive maps as possible. This paper presents an extension of a previously proposed framework. In this extension the notion of placement is accounted for, thereby enabling one aspect of the ‘personalised indoor experience’. In the paper, firstly referential expressions are used as a tool to discuss the different ways of thinking of placement within indoor spaces. Next, placement is expressed in terms of the concept of Position, Location, Place and Area. Finally, the previously proposed framework is extended to include these concepts of placement. An example is provided of the use of the extended framework.

Notable characteristics of the framework are: (1) Sub-spaces, resources and agents can simultaneously possess different types of placement, e.g., a person in a room can have an xyz position and a location defined by the room number. While these entities can simultaneously have different forms of placement, only one is dominant. (2) Sub-spaces, resources and agents are capable of possessing modifiers that alter their access and usage. (3) Sub-spaces inherit the modifiers of the resources or agents contained in them. (4) Unlike conventional navigational models which treat resources and obstacles as different types of entities, in the proposed framework there are only resources and whether a resource is an obstacle is determined by a modifier that determines whether a user can access the resource. The power of the framework is that it blends the geometry and topology of space, the influence of human activity within sub-spaces together with the different notions of placement in a way that is simple and yet very flexible.