THE INFLUENCE OF GROUND CONTROL POINTS CONFIGURATION AND CAMERA CALIBRATION FOR DTM AND ORTHOMOSAIC GENERATION USING IMAGERY OBTAINED FROM A LOW-COST UAV
Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Ground Control Point (GCP), Accuracy Evaluation, Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Orthomosaic, Photogrammetry
Abstract. Technological improvement of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and computer vision algorithms, such as Structured-from-Motion (SfM) and Multi-view Stereo (MVS) have provided the possibility for high-resolution mapping and high-density point cloud generation using low-cost equipment and sensors. Orthomosaics and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) are the main digital products considering mapping purposes. Their quality is directly related to the sensors boarded on the UAV and data processing. Ground Control Points (GCPs) are used in the process of indirect georeferencing and also to model the lens distortions. The number of GCPs used in this process affects the positional accuracy of the final products. This study aims to determine the optimum number of GCPs to achieve high accuracy orthomosaics and DTM. To obtain this optimum number, an area of 3.85 ha was mapped with a low-cost UAV DJI Phantom 4 Advanced at 31 m flying height, lateral and longitudinal overlap of 90% and 80%, respectively, and using 22 checkpoints for quality assessment. For the experiments, different configuration were used both for the number of GCPs and for the use of self-calibration process or pre-calibrated camera IOP (Interior Orientation Parameters). The results show that for the flight configuration used in this work and for the mentioned UAV, a total of 5 GCPs, with pre-calibrated camera IOP, yields an accuracy of 0.023 m for X, 0.031 m for Y and 0.033 m for Z.