DIRECT ESTIMATION OF THE RELATIVE ORIENTATION IN UNDERWATER ENVIRONMENT
Keywords: Underwater stereo, Pose estimation, Flat-refractive, Relative orientation, Plücker coordinates
Abstract. While accuracy, detail, and limited time on site make photogrammetry a valuable means for underwater mapping, the establishment of reference control networks in such settings is oftentimes difficult. In that respect, the use of the coplanarity constraint becomes a valuable solution as it requires neither knowledge of object space coordinates nor setting a reference control network. Nonetheless, imaging in such domains is subjected to non-linear and depth-dependent distortions, which are caused by refractive media that alter the standard single viewpoint geometry. Accordingly, the coplanarity relation, as formulated for the in-air case does not hold in such environment and methods that have been proposed thus far for geometrical modeling of its effect require knowledge of object-space quantities. In this paper we propose a geometrically-driven approach which fulfills the coplanarity condition and thereby requires no knowledge of object space data. We also study a linear model for the establishment of this constraints. Clearly, a linear form requires neither first approximations nor iterative convergence scheme. Such an approach may prove useful not only for object space reconstruction but also as a preparatory step for application of bundle block adjustment and for outlier detection. All are key features in photogrammetric practices. Results show that no unique setup is needed for estimating the relative orientation parameters using the model and that high levels of accuracy can be achieved.