OPTIMAL POSITION AND PATH PLANNING FOR STOP-AND-GO LASERSCANNING FOR THE ACQUISITION OF 3D BUILDING MODELS
Keywords: Art Gallery Problem, Travelling Salesperson Problem, (Mixed) Integer Linear Programming, Terrestrial laser scanning, Stop-and-go
Abstract. Terrestrial laser scanning has become more and more popular in recent years. The according planning of the standpoint network is a crucial issue influencing the overhead and the resulting point cloud. Fully static approaches are both cost and time extensive, whereas fully kinematic approaches cannot produce the same data quality. Stop-and-go scanning, which combines the strengths of both strategies, represents a good alternative solution. In the scanning process, the standpoint planning is by now mostly a manual process based on expert knowledge and relying on the surveyor’s experience. This paper provides a method based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) ensuring an optimal placement of scanner standpoints considering all scanner-related constraints (e.g. incidence angle), a full coverage of the scenery, a sufficient overlap for the subsequent registration and an optimal route planning solving a Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP). This enables the fully automatic application of autonomous systems for providing a complete model while performing a stop-and-go laser scanning, e.g. with the Spot robot from Boston Dynamics. Our pre-computed solution, i.e. standpoints and trajectory, has been evaluated surveying a real-world environment using a 360° panoramic laser scanner and successfully compared with a precise LoD2 building model of the underlying scene. The performed ICP-based registration issued from our fully automatic pipeline turns out to be a very good and safe alternative of the otherwise laborious target-based registration.