ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-1/W1-2023
05 Dec 2023
 | 05 Dec 2023


Z. Wang, S. Zlatanova, M. A. Mostafavi, K. Khoshelham, L. Díaz-Vilariño, and K.-J. Li

Keywords: Navigation, IndoorGML, Point Clouds, Voxel Models

Abstract. With the fast development of urbanization, the complexity of built environments has dramatically increased, driving a need for assistance in seamless indoor-outdoor navigation. This requires integration of spatial information of indoor and outdoor environments from heterogeneous data sources. While outdoor road network data is largely available from many sources (such as OpenStreetMap), indoor spatial information is either inexistent or is inconsistently represented using several different standards. Among these standards, IndoorGML is a well-developed standard with the focus on indoor location-based services. This standard has already been accepted by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and is now under active development. Although in IndoorGML some mechanisms have been defined to enable integration of indoor and outdoor networks, there is still a lack of concrete guidelines for determination of indoor-outdoor connections. It also lacks solid scientific foundations and efficient tools to extract the connecting nodes and edges that link indoor and outdoor spaces. To address this gap, in this study we focus on the connection of indoor and outdoor spaces and aim to provide a tool, which can automatically construct navigation graphs of the indoor-outdoor transitional space to support seamless integration of indoor-outdoor navigation. To this end, voxel-based modeling approaches are used to model the connecting space between indoor and outdoor environments. Based on Python, we develop the intended tool, which can generate voxel models from point clouds, identify navigable space by taking into account the characteristics of agents (such as pedestrians, wheelchairs, and vehicles), and automatically build navigation graphs linking IndoorGML networks with outdoor street networks. It is expected that the methodology and tools developed from this project will benefit the IndoorGML ecosystem and greatly advance the capability of IndoorGML in representing navigable space to support location-based services.