ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-2-2024
10 Jun 2024
 | 10 Jun 2024

Structural Health Monitoring of Bridges with Personal Laser Scanning: Segment-based Analysis of systematic Point Cloud Deformations

Robert Blaskow and Hans-Gerd Maas

Keywords: personal laser scanning, mobile mapping, segmentation, urban, digital twin, bridge monitoring

Abstract. Bridge structures can be surveyed using a number of different methods. Established are image-based methods using structure from motion by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), or a combination of both methods. Beyond static terrestrial laser scanning, buildings can also be efficiently surveyed using personal laser scanner (PLS) systems. The advantage here is the greater flexibility and increased speed compared to the static method. On the other hand, the accuracy may be more critical, and the resulting point cloud will be more sensitive to systematic global or local deformations under unfavorable measurement conditions. For example, temporary influences can lead to local mapping errors. These include influences such as uneven measurement system motion or non-static, feature-sparse environments. 
This study investigates the acquisition of 3D point clouds representing the outer shell of a concrete bridge using a PLS system. We demonstrate a method for detecting possible deformations in PLS point clouds using the example of a bridge structure. For this purpose, the reference (TLS) and the PLS point clouds are segmented into individual clusters and a segment-based ICP fine registration is performed. Different RMSE values for the upper road section (0.061 m) and for the pillar segments (0.021 m) as well as different transformation parameters indicate slight displacements in the PLS point cloud. The analysis of the cloud-to-cloud distances showed that there were slight deformations in the Z direction in the area of the road surface. In the lateral direction, no significant residual deviations were found in the area of the bridge pillars.