SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURAL RELICS PROTECTION UNITS AND DISASTER RISK ANALYSIS IN BEIJING
Keywords: Heritage conservation units, spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, hazard analysis, ARCGIS
Abstract. As the ancient capital of the Six Dynasties and the current capital, Beijing has a rich historical and cultural heritage. As a carrier of culture, cultural preservation units have significant historical, artistic, and scientific value in their own right. In this paper, we use the mean nearest neighbor, kernel density analysis, and standard deviation ellipse tools in ArcGIS 10.2 software to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of different types and periods of cultural heritage units in Beijing and their potential seismic and meteorological hazard risks, to provide strong data support for the conservation and use of cultural heritage units in Beijing. The results show that the different types of cultural preservation units in Beijing are unevenly distributed, with the two categories of modern important historical sites and representative buildings and ancient buildings being more numerous and concentrated in Dongcheng District, Xicheng District, and Haidian District in central Beijing, and the three categories of ancient tombs, ancient ruins, cave temples, and stone carvings being less numerous and concentrated in the outer administrative districts of Beijing. In recent years, the relative humidity in Beijing has shown a decreasing trend, while the average temperature has shown an increasing trend, and this dry and hot environment is not conducive to the conservation of cultural preservation units. This dry and hot environment is not conducive to the protection of cultural preservation units and is prone to damage such as cracking, collapse, deformation, and discoloration of bamboo, wood, rocks, and other cultural heritage elements. It is concluded that in terms of specific regions, the number of cultural heritage units in central Beijing is high, the period is late and the risk of seismic hazards is high, while the number of cultural heritage units in the outer administrative regions of Beijing is low, the period is early and the risk of seismic hazards is low. In conclusion, to enhance the conservation and use of cultural heritage units in Beijing, the relevant authorities should strengthen the daily management of the three high-density and high-risk areas of cultural heritage units in Dongcheng District, Xicheng District, and Haidian District, while at the same time not relaxing the emergency disaster prevention and mitigation of the smaller number and earlier period of cultural heritage units in the peripheral administrative districts.