ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-4/W4-2024
31 May 2024
 | 31 May 2024

Centralised monitoring and control of buildings using open standards

Pavel Paulau, Johannes Hurka, Jan Middelberg, and Sascha Koch

Keywords: building control, district level, sensors, actuators, open standards, OGC Sensorthings API

Abstract. Due to the necessary heat turnaround, buildings are increasingly seen as part of districts, e. g. Positive Energy Districts. Optimizing the energy efficiency of buildings is an essential part of implementing the heat turnaround. As a result, sensor/actuator systems are becoming increasingly important, both at building level and district level. Various proprietary and open standards for monitoring and control are used at building level. This heterogeneity makes it difficult to jointly optimize energy efficiency in buildings. OGC Sensorthings API (STA) is an open standard that defines a common language for sensor data and even tasking processes. In addition, KNX and LoRaWAN are available as standards for building monitoring and control. This article therefore proposes a solution that combines these standards. As proof of concept, two different buildings are equipped with KNX and LoRaWAN. Sensor data is collected in both buildings and merged centrally in a so-called building data lake based on OGC STA Sensing Part, e.g. temperature or indoor air quality. In addition, OGC STA Tasking Part is used to trigger actuator commands centrally and independently of the communication standard used in the controlled building, e. g. temperature setting of thermostats. As part of the proof of concept, it is shown how standardized sensor data can be visualized based on available visualization software, e. g. Grafana, and how the standardized actuator control level can be used for optimizations such as the night setback of heating systems.