INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENT LOW-COST LAND VEHICLE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS BASED ON CPD SENSORS AND VEHICLE INFORMATION
Keywords: Inertial Navigation Systems, Consumer Portable Devices, Steering angle, Dead Reckoning, Reduced Inertial Sensor System, Extended Kalman Filter
Abstract. Recently, many companies and research centres have been working on research and development of navigation technologies for self-driving cars. Many navigation technologies were developed based on the fusion of various sensors. However, most of these techniques used expensive sensors and consequently increase the overall cost of such cars. Therefore, low-cost sensors are now a rich research topic in land vehicle navigation. Consumer Portable Devices (CPDs) such as smartphones and tablets are being widely used and contain many sensors (e.g. cameras, barometers, magnetometers, accelerometers, gyroscopes, and GNSS receivers) that can be used in the land vehicle navigation applications.
This paper investigates various land vehicle navigation systems based on low-cost self-contained inertial sensors in CPD, vehicle information and on-board sensors with a focus on GNSS denied environment. Vehicle motion information such as forward speed is acquired from On-Board Diagnosis II (OBD-II) while the land vehicle heading change is estimated using CPD attached to the steering wheel. Additionally, a low-cost on-board GNSS/inertial integrated system is also employed. The paper investigates many navigation schemes such as different Dead Reckoning (DR) systems, Reduced Inertial Sensor System (RISS) based systems, and aided loosely coupled GNSS/inertial integrated system.
An experimental road test is performed, and different simulated GNSS signal outages were applied to the data. The results show that the modified RISS system based on OBD-II velocity, onboard gyroscopes, accelerometers, and CPD-based heading change provides a better navigation estimation than the typical RISS system for 90s GNSS signal outage. On the other hand, typical inertial aided with CPD heading change, OBD-II velocity updates, and Non-Holonomic Constraint (NHC) provide the best navigation result.