GENERATION OF REFERENCE VEHICLE TRAJECTORIES IN REAL-WORLD SITUATIONS USING AERIAL IMAGERY FROM A HELICOPTER
Keywords: vehicle tracking, aerial images, GNSS certification, vehicle trajectory, GNSS-denied, helicopter
Abstract. Highly accurate reference vehicle trajectories are required in the automotive domain e. g. for testing mobile GNSS devices. Common methods used to determine reference trajectories are based on the same working principles as the device under test and suffer from the same underlying error problems. In this paper, a new method to generate reference vehicle trajectories in real-world situations using simultaneously acquired aerial imagery from a helicopter is presented. This method requires independent height information which is coming from a LIDAR DTM and the relative height of the GNSS device. The reference trajectory is then derived by forward intersection of the vehicle position in each image with the DTM. In this context, the influence of all relevant error sources were analysed, like the error from the LIDAR DTM, from the sensor latency, from the semi-automatic matching of the vehicle marking, and from the image orientation. Results show that the presented method provides a tool for creating reference trajectories that is independent of the GNSS reception at the vehicle. Moreover, it can be demonstrated that the proposed method reaches an accuracy level of 10 cm, which is defined as necessary for certification and validation of automotive GNSS devices.