AUTOMATIC POINT CLOUD SEGMENTATION FOR THE DETECTION OF ALTERATIONS ON HISTORICAL BUILDINGS THROUGH AN UNSUPERVISED AND CLUSTERING-BASED MACHINE LEARNING APPROACH
Keywords: Photogrammetry, Point Cloud Processing, Point Cloud Segmentation, Colour-based segmentation, Machine learning, Diagnostic Analysis, Cultural Heritage
Abstract. The article describes an innovative procedure for the three-dimensional analysis of decay morphologies of ancient buildings, through the application of machine learning methods for the automatic segmentation of point clouds. In the field of Cultural Heritage conservation, photogrammetric data can be exploited, for diagnostic and monitoring support, to recognize different typologies of alterations visible on the masonry surface, starting from colour information. Actually, certain stone and plaster surface pathologies (biological patina, biological colonization, chromatic alterations, spots,…) are typically characterized by chromatic variations. To this purpose, colour-based segmentation with hierarchical clustering has been implemented on colour data of point clouds, considered in the HSV colour-space. In addition, geometry-based segmentation of 3D reconstructions has been performed, in order to identify the main architectural elements (walls, vaults), and to associate them to the detected defects. The proposed workflow has been applied to some ancient buildings’ environments, chosen because of their irregularity both in geometrical and colorimetric characteristics.