LONG-TERM LAND SURFACE WATER MONITORING IN THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN OF CHINA BASED ON LANDSAT IMAGERY ON THE GOOGLE EARTH ENGINE
Keywords: surface water, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+, Landsat OLI, Google Earth Engine, Yellow River Basin
Abstract. Land surface water is the most active part of the earth's surface layer and plays an important role in material balance and energy transformation. The monitoring of dynamic changes in surface open water helps to grasp the distribution and changes of water resources, which is important for understanding the impact of human activities on water resources and safeguarding the ecological security of the basin. In the study, 72,520 Landsat images were processed using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud platform to study the long-term changes of the open surface water in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) from 2000 to 2020. The results show that (1) The multi-index water body extraction rules (MIWER) is suitable for long-term and large-scale surface water mapping based on Landsat images; (2) From 2000 to 2020, both permanent and seasonal water in the whole YRB and sub-basins have increased. In general, the total open surface water in the YRB show an increasing trend with obvious spatial heterogeneity; (3) The changes of open surface water in the YRB are related to climate change and intensive human activities, but the influencing factors vary in different regions and need to be further studied in the future. The findings of this study can be used to help the policy-makers understand changing water resources and their driving mechanism and provide a reference for water resources management, agricultural irrigation, and ecological protection.