INTEGRATION OF 3D POINT CLOUDS WITH SEMANTIC 3D CITY MODELS – PROVIDING SEMANTIC INFORMATION BEYOND CLASSIFICATION
Keywords: 3D Point Clouds, 3D City Models, CityGML 3.0, LAS, Semantics, Digital Twin
Abstract. A range of different and increasingly accessible acquisition methods, the possibility for frequent data updates of large areas, and a simple data structure are some of the reasons for the popularity of three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data. While there are multiple techniques for segmenting and classifying point clouds, capabilities of common data formats such as LAS for providing semantic information are mostly limited to assigning points to a certain category (classification). However, several fields of application, such as digital urban twins used for simulations and analyses, require more detailed semantic knowledge. This can be provided by semantic 3D city models containing hierarchically structured semantic and spatial information. Although semantic models are often reconstructed from point clouds, they are usually geometrically less accurate due to generalization processes. First, point cloud data structures / formats are discussed with respect to their semantic capabilities. Then, a new approach for integrating point clouds with semantic 3D city models is presented, consequently combining respective advantages of both data types. In addition to elaborate (and established) semantic concepts for several thematic areas, the new version 3.0 of the international Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard CityGML also provides a PointCloud module. In this paper a scheme is shown, how CityGML 3.0 can be used to provide semantic structures for point clouds (directly or stored in a separate LAS file). Methods and metrics to automatically assign points to corresponding Level of Detail (LoD)2 or LoD3 models are presented. Subsequently, dataset examples implementing these concepts are provided for download.