ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-1-2024
09 May 2024
 | 09 May 2024

Efficient Feature Matching for Large-scale Images based on Cascade Hash and Local Geometric Constraint

Kan You, San Jiang, Yaxin Li, Wanshou Jiang, and Xiangxiang Huang

Keywords: Feature Matching, Cascade Hashing, Local Geometric Constraint, Structure from Motion, 3D Reconstruction

Abstract. Feature matching plays a crucial role in 3D reconstruction to provide correspondences between overlapped images. The accuracy and efficiency of feature matching significantly impact the performance of 3D reconstruction. The widely used framework with the exhaustive nearest neighbor searching (NNS) between descriptors and RANSAC-based geometric estimation is, however, low-efficient and unreliable for large-scale UAV images. Inspired by indexing-based NNS, this paper implements an efficient feature matching method for large-scale images based on Cascade Hashing and local geometric constraints. Our proposed method improves upon traditional feature matching approaches by introducing a combination of image retrieval, data scheduling, and GPU-accelerated Cascade Hashing. Besides, it utilizes a local geometric constraint to filter matching results within a matching framework. On the one hand, the GPU-accelerated Cascade Hashing technique generates compact and discriminative hash codes based on image features, facilitating the rapid completion of the initial matching process, and significantly reducing the search space and time complexity. On the other hand, after the initial matching is completed, the method employs a local geometric constraint to filter the initial matching results, enhancing the accuracy of the matching results. This forms a three-tier framework based on data scheduling, GPU-accelerated Cascade Hashing, and local geometric constraints. We conducted experiments using two sets of large-scale UAV image data, comparing our method with SIFTGPU to evaluate its performance in initial matching, outlier rejection, and 3D reconstruction. The results demonstrate that our method achieves a feature matching speed 2.0 times that of SIFTGPU while maintaining matching accuracy and producing comparable reconstruction results. This suggests that our method holds promise for efficiently addressing large-scale image matching.