ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-1-2024
09 May 2024
 | 09 May 2024

On-Orbit Geometric Calibration of the HJ-2 A/B Satellites' Infrared Sensors

Hao Zhang, Wei Qin, Kaixin Wang, Qianying Wang, and Pengjie Tao

Keywords: Camera calibration, Infrared sensors, Whisk-broom camera, Multi-focal-plane-array, HJ-2 A/B satellites

Abstract. With the advancement of China's satellite technology, the HuanJingJianZai-2 A/B (HJ-2 A/B) satellites, equipped with whisk-broom infrared sensors, represent a significant leap forward in environmental monitoring and Earth observation capabilities. This technological leap, however, introduces new challenges in calibration. The unique structure of the HJ-2 A/B infrared spectroradiometer (IRS) necessitates innovative calibration techniques, as traditional methods primarily focused on exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) and often overlooked the importance of interior orientation accuracy, which is essential for accurate multispectral band registration and color rendering. Addressing this gap, we introduce an innovative multi-focal-plane-array joint calibration method specifically designed for whisk-broom cameras. Our method involves selecting a master band from each focal plane array for accurate focal length calibration and deriving ground control points from image matching and altitude interpolation for comprehensive bundle adjustment. This adjustment refines EOPs and interior orientation parameters (IOPs), ensuring globally optimal EOPs and enhanced IOPs calibration stability. The application of our method to the HJ-2 A/B IRS yielded substantial improvements in georeferencing and band registration accuracies, surpassing traditional methods. This paper details the multi-focal-plane-array joint calibration method, describes the IRS and experimental setup, presents the experimental results, and concludes with the implications and potential applications of our findings.