ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-2-2024
10 Jun 2024
 | 10 Jun 2024

Machine Learning Approaches for Vehicle Counting on Bridges Based on Global Ground-Based Radar Data

Matthias Arnold and Sina Keller

Keywords: Unequal Time-Series Data, Bridge Displacement, Bridge Monitoring, MiniRocket, Tree-Based Approaches, Feature Extraction

Abstract. This study introduces a novel data-driven approach for classifying and estimating the number of vehicles crossing a bridge solely on non-invasive ground-based radar time series data (GBR data). GBR is used to measure the bridge displacement remotely. It has recently been investigated for remote bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM). BWIM mainly focuses on single-vehicle events. However, events with several vehicles should be exploited to increase the amount of data. Therefore, extracting the number of involved vehicles in the first step would be beneficial. Acquiring such information from global bridge responses such as displacement can be challenging. This study indicates that a data-driven machine learning approach can extract the vehicle count from GBR time series data. When classifying events according to the number of vehicles, we achieve a balanced accuracy of up to 80 % on an imbalanced dataset. We also try to estimate the number of cars and trucks separately via regression and acquire a R2 of 0.8. Finally, we show the impact of the data augmentation methods we apply to the GBR data to tackle the skew in the dataset using the feature importance of Random Forests.