ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-4/W1-2022
13 Jan 2023
 | 13 Jan 2023


S. Izanlou, Y. Amerian, and S. M. Seyed Mousavi

Keywords: GNSS, PWV, Machine Learning, Interpolation, Extreme Gradient Boosting Regression, Random Forest Regression

Abstract. Atmospheric water vapor plays a vital role in phenomena related to the global hydrological cycle and climate changes, and its Spatio-temporal modeling and prediction help to identify and predict climatic phenomena. Accordingly, in this study, hourly precipitable water vapor (PWV) data sets for 27 stations receiving Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations in one month and machine learning methods were used to estimate PWV. Machine learning methods used in this study 1. Random Forest Regression (RFR) method 2. Extreme Gradient Boosting Regression (XGBR). The root mean square error (RMSE) in PWV estimation with the RFR method (RFR PWV) is 2.42 mm, and in PWV estimation with the XGBR method (XGBR PWV) is 2.75 mm, and the R-squared (R2) of the RFR method is 0.74, and for the XGBR method, these values are equal to 0.71. The obtained results show the efficiency and accuracy of both models in estimating PWV, which shows that machine learning methods have been able to recognize the behavior and changes of precipitable vapor in a small spatial and temporal interval. Although both ways had high accuracies, the RFR model performed slightly better and had better accuracy than the XGBR model.