ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-4/W4-2024
31 May 2024
 | 31 May 2024

Building extraction in urban and rural areas with aerial and LiDAR DSM

Emilia Hattula, Lingli Zhu, and Jere Raninen

Keywords: Deep Learning, UNet, Building Extraction, Digital Surface Model, Digital Elevation Model

Abstract. Automatizing the extraction of different objects from remote sensing data with deep learning methods has been a popular research topic. Buildings have been one of those popular objects to be extracted. Not only does the selection of neural network affect the results and accuracy of extracted buildings, but also the selection of different types of data for the task. Digital surface models (DSMs) are increasingly used in remote sensing and their demand has increased. Retrieving height information from surface models has proved helpful for accurate extraction of buildings. In this study was investigated, if the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) DSMs and DEMs with 25 cm pixel resolution will lead to more accurate building extraction results in comparison to the use of aerial DSMs. Results with UNet models trained with building vector labels, DSMs, DEMs and true orthophotos from multiple areas of Finland, were produced with different data combinations from two Finnish cities, Savonlinna and Pudasj¨arvi, to see, which combination would lead to the most accurate building detection results. Results were evaluated partly by visual inspection, and partly by quantitative assessment. Based on the tests carried out, combining the information from true orthophotos with LiDAR DSMs and 25 cm DEMs provided the most accurate results. In forest area, using LiDAR data increased the accuracy of building detection. However, in urban area, due to missing buildings from LiDAR data, its advantages were compromised. We suggest that the use of both imagery and LiDAR data should be the optimal solution.