FROM THE DIGITAL TWIN OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE TO THE DEFINITION OF THE CONSTRAINT MAPS. THE CASE STUDY OF THE CASTELLO SFORZESCO IN MILAN
Keywords: Digital mapping, GIS, Constraints map, Architectural Heritage, Underground Built Heritage, Castello Sforzesco, 3D data, Digital twin
Abstract. The work presented here is part of the widespread digitisation process that is affecting the world of architecture and cultural heritage. The text reports part of the activities carried out on the Castello Sforzesco in Milan, in collaboration with its Superintendence bodies. This work proposes an innovative way to draft, in a digital environment, 3D constraint maps, capable of describing and protecting the complex system of structures in that area, especially in the subsoil. The activity began with the creation of a georeferenced 3D model of all the existing architectural elements in the analyzed area of the Castle. The work was carried out on the northwest corner of the fortress, the area between the Torre della Colubrina and the Porta del Soccorso. The modeling activity was based both on data obtained from surveys and historical documentation describing structures that are no longer visible. From the 3D model, it was then possible to obtain all useful data to draw up constraint maps in GIS (Geographic Information System) environment. This latter allows multiple interactions both with the normal surface cartographic information (Topographic Database and others) and with the multitude of datasets available for managing the territory and its subsystems. The constraints consider a ‘safety’ offset, applied in all three directions. These maps describe the various three-dimensional areas, referring to the different structures present in the subsoil, within which it is recommended to operate with extreme caution, in relation to the position and conformation of the same identified assets.