ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume V-3-2022
17 May 2022
 | 17 May 2022


Y. Lin, G. Xie, T. Zhang, J. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Cai

Keywords: remote-sensing image classification, land use, extreme learning machine, kernel function, A-ELM, machine learning

Abstract. In the study of urban sustainable development, accurate classification of land use has become an important basis for monitoring urban dynamic changes. Hence it is necessary to develop the appropriate recognition model for urban-rural land use. Although deep learning algorithms have become a research hotspot in image classification tasks in recent years, and many good results have been achieved. But other machine learning algorithms are not going away. Compared deep learning with machine learning, there are some advantages and disadvantages in data dependence, hardware dependence, feature processing, problem solving methods, execution time, and interpretability, etc. Especially in the classification for remote sensing images, the continuous research and development of traditional machine learning algorithms is still of great significance. In this paper, the performances of several SLFN-based classification algorithms were studied and compared, including ELM, RBF K-ELM, mixed K-ELM, A-ELM and SVM. Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is a new algorithm for single-hidden-layer feedforward neural network (SLFN). It has simple structure, fast speed and is easy to train. In some applications, however, standard ELM is prone to be overfitting and its performance will be affected seriously when outliers exist. In order to explore the performance of ELM and its improved algorithm for urban-rural land use classification, comparative experiments between three improved ELM algorithms (RBF K-ELM, mixed K-ELM and A-ELM), ELM and SVM with image data from several study areas were performed, and the classification accuracy and efficiency were analysed. The results show that the three improved ELM algorithms perform better than the standard ELM and SVM both in overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient. However, it is worth noting that the computation efficiency of RBF K-ELM and mixed K-ELM decreases greatly with larger image, the time cost is much more than other algorithms. Compared with other algorithms, A-ELM has the advantages of higher Overall Accuracy and less classification time.