PLASTIC SURGERY FOR 3D CITY MODELS: A PIPELINE FOR AUTOMATIC GEOMETRY REFINEMENT AND SEMANTIC ENRICHMENT
Keywords: Geometry Refinement, Semantic 3D City Model, HD Map, Point Cloud, Mobile Mapping, Autonomous Driving
Abstract. Nowadays, the number of connected devices providing unstructured data is rapidly rising. These devices acquire data with a temporal and spatial resolution at an unprecedented level creating an influx of geoinformation which, however, lacks semantic information. Simultaneously, structured datasets like semantic 3D city models are widely available and assure rich semantics and high global accuracy but are represented by rather coarse geometries. While the mentioned downsides curb the usability of these data types for nowadays’ applications, the fusion of both shall maximize their potential. Since testing and developing automated driving functions stands at the forefront of the challenges, we propose a pipeline fusing structured (CityGML and HD Map datasets) and unstructured datasets (MLS point clouds) to maximize their advantages in the automatic 3D road space models reconstruction domain. The pipeline is a parameterized end-to-end solution that integrates segmentation, reconstruction, and modeling tasks while ensuring geometric and semantic validity of models. Firstly, the segmentation of point clouds is supported by the transfer of semantics from a structured to an unstructured dataset. The distinction between horizontal- and vertical-like point cloud subsets enforces a further segmentation or an immediate refinement while only adequately depicted models by point clouds are allowed. Then, based on the classified and filtered point clouds the input 3D model geometries are refined. Building upon the refinement, the semantic enrichment of the 3D models is presented. The deployment of a simulation engine for automated driving research and a city model database tool underlines the versatility of possible application areas.