ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-1-2024
09 May 2024
 | 09 May 2024

A novel LiDAR-GNSS-INS Two-Phase Tightly Coupled integration scheme for precise navigation

Mengchi Ai, Ilyar Asl Sabbaghian Hokmabad, Mohamed Elhabiby, and Naser El-Sheimy

Keywords: GNSS/INS navigation, Factor graph optimization, Extended Kalman Filter, LiDAR, Sensor fusion, IMU

Abstract. Recent advances in precise navigation have extensively utilized the integration of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS), particularly in the domain of intelligent vehicles. However, the efficacy of such navigation systems is considerably compromised by the reflection and multipath disruptions of non-light-of-sight (NLOS) signals. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-based odometry, an active perception-based sensor known for its precise 3D measurements, has become increasingly prevalent in augmenting navigation systems. Nonetheless, the assimilation of LiDAR odometry with GNSS/INS systems presents substantial challenges. Addressing these challenges, this study introduces a two-phase sensor fusion (TPSF) approach that synergistically combines GNSS positioning, LiDAR odometry, and IMU pre-integration through a dual-stage sensor fusion process. The initial stage employs an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to amalgamate the GNSS solution with IMU Mechanization, facilitating the estimation of IMU biases and system initialization. Subsequently, the second stage integrates scan-to-map LiDAR odometry with IMU mechanization to support continuous LiDAR factor estimation. Factor graph optimization (FGO) is then utilized for the comprehensive fusion of LiDAR factors, IMU pre-integration, and GNSS solutions. The efficacy of the proposed methodology is corroborated through rigorous testing on a demanding trajectory from an urbanized open-source dataset, with the system demonstrating a notable enhancement in performance compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms, achieving a translational Standard Deviation (STD) of 1.269 meters.