ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-1-2024
09 May 2024
 | 09 May 2024

Large-scale DSM registration via motion averaging

Ningli Xu and Rongjun Qin

Keywords: Iterative Closest Point, 3D Data Registration, Motion Averaging, Digital Surface Model

Abstract. Generating wide-area digital surface models (DSMs) requires registering a large number of individual, and partially overlapped DSMs. This presents a challenging problem for a typical registration algorithm, since when a large number of observations from these multiple DSMs are considered, it may easily cause memory overflow. Sequential registration algorithms, although can significantly reduce the computation, are especially vulnerable for small overlapped pairs, leading to a large error accumulation. In this work, we propose a novel solution that builds the DSM registration task as a motion averaging problem: pair-wise DSMs are registered to build a scene graph, with edges representing relative poses between DSMs. Specifically, based on the grid structure of the large DSM, the pair-wise registration is performed using a novel nearest neighbor search method. We show that the scene graph can be optimized via an extremely fast motion average algorithm with O(N) complexity (N refers to the number of images). Evaluation of high-resolution satellite-derived DSM demonstrates significant improvement in computation and accuracy.