ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume X-1-2024
09 May 2024
 | 09 May 2024

M-GCLO: Multiple Ground Constrained LiDAR Odometry

Yandi Yang and Naser El-Sheimy

Keywords: Mobile Mapping System, LiDAR SLAM, Ground Constraints, Pose Estimation, Localization

Abstract. Accurate LiDAR odometry results contribute directly to high-quality point cloud maps. However, traditional LiDAR odometry methods drift easily upward, leading to inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the point cloud maps. Considering abundant and reliable ground points in the Mobile Mapping System(MMS), ground points can be extracted, and constraints can be built to eliminate pose drifts. However, existing LiDAR-based odometry methods either do not use ground point cloud constraints or consider the ground plane as an infinite plane (i.e., single ground constraint), making pose estimation prone to errors. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to developing a Multiple Ground Constrained LiDAR Odometry(M-GCLO) method, which extracts multiple grounds and optimizes those plane parameters for better accuracy and robustness. M-GCLO includes three modules. Firstly, the original point clouds will be classified into the ground and non-ground points. Ground points are voxelized, and multiple ground planes are extracted, parameterized, and optimized to constrain the pose errors. All the non-ground point clouds are used for point-to-distribution matching by maintaining an NDT voxel map. Secondly, a novel method for weighting the residuals is proposed by considering the uncertainties of each point in a scan. Finally, the jacobians and residuals are given along with the weightings for estimating LiDAR states. Experimental results in KITTI and M2DGR datasets show that M-GCLO outperforms state-of-the-art LiDAR odometry methods in large-scale outdoor and indoor scenarios.